Khiva sights

Published on 18-Feb-13 23:40

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Khorezm is another pearl of Asia, dating back so long that only a few civilizations can equal his age. Many hundreds of years before the Great Silk Road, ancient Khorezm was already connected on water and land with Europe and the East, Siberia and the civilizations of the South. The great world civilizations of that time emerged in Khorezm. His cultural interaction preceded the opening of the Great Silk Road.
Khiva is placed in the west of the Khorezm region, at the height of 100 m above sea level, next to limitless Kyzylkum Desert. Khiva seems to have materialized from a story. Khiva kept exotic character of an ancient place, untouched by time, until now. There are palaces with rich mosaic, unique beautiful buildings of ancient times at its best appearance with the architecture of Khiva amazed by its beauty, painting, and astonishing combinations of colors.
•    The 6thc. BC defeat of Khorezm by Iran of the Aheminids.
•    The 6thc. BC developing of Khorezm written language having its roots in Arash written language; Khorezm is assumed to be the place of origin of Zoroastrianism.
•    328 BC friendly meeting of envoys sent by Khorezm and Alexander the Great; 150 years after Khorezm played a leading role in liberation from aggressors.
•    The 3rdc. BC-1stc. AD - the prime period of the civilization of the ancient Khorezm.
•    250-140 BC reign of Greek-Bactrian kings.
•    The 2ndc.-1stc. BC pre-Kushan period; formation of the vast state Kanguy containing Shakhrisabz, Tashkent, Bukhara, Urgench, and Sogdiana.
•    The end of the 1stc. BC separation of Kushan region from Kanguy.
•    78-123 BC Kushan empire absorbed Khorezm.
•    The 3rdc. AD Khorezm restored it's influence and claimed to be a world power.
•    The 4thc. failed expansion of the Samanids in Central Asia.
•    The 4th-6thcc. Khorezm was the only state of the present-day Uzbekistan managed to remain sovereign during Eftalite empire and Turk khanate.
•    The 7thc. civil war broke out in Khorezm.
•    The 8thc. Khorezm was conquered by Arabs under the command of Kuteiba ibn Muslim; Khorezm was ruined.
•    The 9thc.-1Othc. Khorezm was the part of either the state of the Takharids or the state of the Tosafarids or the state of the Samanids.
•    The beginning of the 11thc. Khorezm became a part of the state of the Caznevids.
•    The 1st half of the 12thc. after the defeat of the Gaznevids Khorezm became a part of the state of the Seldjukids.
•    1172-1200 Coquest of Khorezm by Kora-Chinese.
•    1200-1220 Liberation from Kora-Chinese by Muhammed ibn Tepesh.
•    1220 invasion of Mongols.
•    The 13thc.-14thc. reign of Uzbek khans; Urgench revived at a new location became the biggest town of Golden Horde.
•    The end of the 14thc. the beginning of reune Ting of Northern and South Khorezm and obtaining independence from Golden Horde.
•    The 15thc. reign of the dynasty of the Temurids.
•    The 16thc. Khorezm was under the dominion of the Sheibanids; the beginning of flowering of the architecture of Khiva.
•    The 16thc. - the beginning of the 17thc. formation of Khiva Khanate.
•    The 18thc. Khiva suffered economic and political crisis. The end of the 19thc. Khiva became vassal for Russia.
•    Khiva accumulated all the best in the art of architecture and monumental painting. The architecture of Khiva has the late feudal character. When in Khiva you'll experience all the events of the past.

Historical and architectural monuments of Khiva
Ichan-Kala:
•    Mosque and Madrasseh of Said-bey (the end of the 18thc. the beginning of the 19thc.); by the gate Palvan-Darvoza.
•    Madrasseh of Allakulikhan (1834/35).
•    Tim and Cereven-Serai of Allakulikhan (19thc.).
•    Madrasseh of Kutlug-Murad-inak (1804/12).
•    Madrasseh of Abdulla-khan (1865).
•    Mosque and Bath-chambers of Anush-khan (1657).
•    Tash-hauli (the palace of Allakulikhan) (1830/36).
•    Ak Mosque (1832/42).
•    Djuma Mosque and Minaret (1788/89).
•    Mausoleum of Said Alautdin (14thc.).
•    Madrasseh of Muhammad Amin Khan (1851/52).
•    Kalta-Minor Minaret (1855).
•    Kunya-Ark (1868/88).
•    Akshi-bobo Bastion, Kurnysh-khona (1804/6) (Palace of Muhammad Rakhim khan, winter and summer Mosques).
•    Minaret of Tura-Murad-Tur (1888).
•    Madrasseh of Muhammad Rakhim khan (1871).
•    Madrasse of Shirgazizkhan (1718/20).
•    Baglandy Mosque (19thc.).
•    Madrasseh of Arab khan (1838).
•    Mausoleum of Allaudin sheikh who died in 1303, in 1825 the building was thoroughly rebuilt.
•    Complex of Pakhlavan Makhmud: Mausoleum (1830), cult buildings the 19thc. - the beginning of the 20thc., burial site of khan family.
•    Islam-hadji Madrasseh and Minaret (1908-10).
•    Kheivan well date is unknown; described in legends.
•    Madrasseh of Khodjamberdy-bey (1834).
•    Madrasseh and Minaret of Bikadjan-bek (1894).
•    Ark-Darvoza Gate (19thc.).
•    Kush-Darvoza Gate (19thc.).
•    Walls of Ichan-Kafa (18thc.-19thc.).

•    Dishan-Kala:
•    Out-of-town residence of Kublataza-bag (19thc.).
•    Nurullabay Palace Complex (1912).
•    Complex of Said Sheliker bey (30-40s of the 19thc.).
•    Palvan-Kara Madrasah and Minaret (1905).
•    Post-Office building (1910).
•    Hospital building (1912).
•    Country estate of Chadra-Khauli-beg (the beginning of the 20thc.).

Bukhara sights

Published on 18-Feb-13 23:37

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As mentioned in the Avesta, the holy book of pre Islam era and one of the oldest religions in Central Asia, Bukhara is one of the most ancient Uzbek cities built on the sacred hill in spring by proposals of Zoroastrians. "Bukhara" is derived from the Sanskrit word "Vihara", meaning "temple" For centuries, the city was known as Numizhkat, Madinat-us-Suphia, Madinat-ut-Tudjar, Fakhira.

•    It's assumed that the town was founded in the 13thc. BC during the reign of the Siyavushids who had come to power 980 years before Alexander the Great.
•    The 4thc. BC conquest by Alexander the Great.
•    312 BC establishment of the Selevkids dynasty.
•    The 8thc. AD Bukhara was conquered by Arabs under command of Kuteyba-ibn-Muslim and began growing as cultural, religious, and philosophical center.
•    The 9thc. - Status of the capital of the Samanids state.
•    892 - 907 reign of Ismail Samaniy.
•    The 9thc. - 10thc. Development of handicraft production.
•    961 - 976 reign of the Emir Mansur-ibn-Nuh; Bukhara became the center of writers, scientists, artists; the reign of The Samanids was marked by the flowering of the architecture.
•    999 Bukhara was conquered by Nasr from the dynasty ot the Karakhanids. The 11thc. Bukhara was conquered by Khorezm-shah's brother; the beginning of the Sadrs dynasty.
•    1141 Bukhara was under authority of Kara-Chinese.
•    1241 having suppressed the uprising of craftsmen, Khorezm-shah Mohammed annexed Bukhara to Khorezm.
•    1220 Bukhara conquered by Mongols of Chingiz-khan.
•    The 13thc. Bukhara destroyed and devastated by Mongols.
•    The 14thc. - 15thc. the era of the Temurids.
•    The 16thc. Bukhara became the capital of Bukhara Khanate.
•    The 18thc. Bukhara was conquered by Iranian shah.
•    The end of the 18thc. overcoming the crisis; Bukhara returned to Bukhara Khanate.
•    The beginning of the 19thc. the war for land between Bukhara and Khiva as well as the war between Bukhara and Kokand for possession of Dzhizak, Tashkent, Hodjent.
•    The end of the 11thc. Bukhara got into vassalage for Russia; continual interference of tsarist Russia in domestic and foreign affairs of Bukhara Khanate resulted in complete dominion of tsarist Russia over the Khanate.
•    Reign of the last emirs of Bukhara Khanate:
•    1885 - 1910 the Emir Said Abdullakhid.
•    1910 - 1920 the Emir Said Mir-Alimhan.
•    Since 1924 Bukhara has been the part of Soviet Uzbekistan. Present day Bukhara is a historical and archeological museum under the open sky. Bukhara is approaching the age of 2500.
•    Historical and architectural monuments of Bukhara
•    Ark fortress (11th- 20thcc.).
•    Bala-Hauz ensemble (the beginning of the 18th- 20thcc.).
•    Mausoleum of the Samanids (the 9th-1Othcc.)
•    Chasma-Ayub Mazar (1380 or 1385).
•    Madrasseh of Abdulla-khan (1596/98).
•    Madrasseh of Madariy-khan (1556/57).
•    Balyand Mosque - (the beginning of the 16thc.).
•    Gaukushon Ensemble (Mosque, Minaret, Madrasseh) (16thc.).
•    Hanaka of Zainutdin-Hadji (1555).
•    Pai-Kalyan Ensemble (12th-14thcc.).
•    Labi-Hauz Ensemble (I6th-17thcc.).
•    Kukeldash Madrasseh (1568/69).
•    Hanaka of Nadira-Divan-bigi (1620).
•    Madrasse of Nadira-Divan-bigi (1620).
•    Madrasseh of Ulugbek (1417).
•    Madrasseh of Abdulaziz-khan (1652).
•    Bala-Hauz Mosque (1712).
•    Mausoleum of Saifetdin Boharziy (the second half of the 13th-14thcc.).
•    Mausoleum of Buyan Kulikhan (the second half of the 14thc., 15th or 16thc.).
•    The out-of-town Mosque Namazgoh the (12th- 16thcc.).
•    Hanaka Faizabad (1598/99).
•    Chor-Minor Madrasseh (1807).
•    Bukhara Emir Palace Sitoraiy-Mokhiy-Hosa (the end of the 19thc. - the beginning of the 20thc.).
•    The Jubariy sheikhs family site of burial Chor-Bakr (1563).

Samarkand sights

Published on 18-Feb-13 23:34

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Samarkand is located in the Zarafshan valley and is surrounded by the spurs of the Pamir-Alai mountain ranges. Ancient Samarkand was well known in the East as well as in the West. In IV BC Samarkand was called as Marakanda and was one of the centers of culture and commerce in the East. Samarkand is the same age as cradles of human civilization Athens, Rome, Memphis and Alexandria.

•    The end of the 4th c., the beginning of the 3d c. BC invasion of the army of Alexander the Great.
•    328 BC the uprising against Alexander the Great; the town was destroyed.
•    The 4th-3thc. BC scene of struggle between the Selevkids's state against Parfians.
•    The 2nd-3rdcc. BC - the war between Partia and Greek-Bactrian Kingdom.
•    The 1stc. BC the 1stc. AD flowering of trade and culture; reign of Kushan kings.
•    The 8thc. town was conquered by Arabs.
•    The 7th-8thcc. Samarkand was the heart of Sogdiana.
•    720 - 721 Said Khusein conquered the town; conversion of Sogdians to Muslim faith.
•    The 11thc. Samarkand lost fame of leadership in culture and economy; status of capital town was taken by Bukhara.
•    The 1Oth-11thc. Continual uprisings against Bukhara rule; Muhammad Khorezm-shah came to power.
•    1212 uprising against Khorezm-shah.
•    1220 regiments of Chingiz-khan destroyed the town.
•    The 14thc. Tamerlane's troops freed Samarkand Mongols; Samarkand became the capital of the Temurids.
•    The 14th-15thcc. The beginning of intense building of the town during the absolute rule of Tamerlan. The 15thc. The throne was handed over to Ulugbek, Tamerlan's grandson.
•    The 15th-16thcc. Sheibaniy-khan's offence; Samarkand was conquered by nomadic Uzbeks.
•    The end of the 16thcc. The beginning of the process of feuda territorial division caused by economic decadence of Samarkand.
•    1740 during Nodir Shah's attack all the residents were killed; by the end of the 18thc. Murad-shah gradually rebuilt the town.
•    1868 Russian troops occupied "The Holy Town" Samarkand.
•    1929 - 1930 Samarkand was the capital of Uzbek SSR.
•    Samarkand has always been famous as the cultural center and today is considered to be the city of craftsmen and scientists.
•    Historical and architectural monuments of Samarkand
•    The ancient settlement Afrosiyab (the 8thc. BC the 13thc. AD).
•    Observatory of Ulugbek (1428-1429), the foot of the hill Chupan-Ata.
•    The architectural ensemble Shakhi-Zinda.
•    Hazret-Hyzr Mosque (the middle of the 19thc.)
•    Bibi-Khanum Mosque (1399-1404).
•    Madrasse (Muslim school) of Ulugbek (1417-1420).
•    Shir-Dor Madrasseh - (1619-1636).
•    Tillya-Kari Madrasseh (1647-1660).
•    Chorsu, bazaar dome (the end of the 18thc.).
•    Rukhabad Mausoleum (1380s).
•    Ak-Saray Mausoleum (1470s).
•    Gur-Emir Mausoleum (1404).
•    Namazgoh Mosque (17thc.).
•    Ishrat-Khona Mausoleum (1464).
•    Ensemble of Hadji Ahrar - (the 15th-20thcc.).
•    Chupan-Ata Mausoleum (1430-1440s).
•    Hadji Abdi Darun Mazar (holy place of burial) (15th-19thcc.).
•    Burial-vault of Hadji Daniyar (19thc.).

Tashkent sights

Published on 18-Feb-13 23:30

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Tashkent is the capital of the independent Uzbekistan. Today Tashkent is one of the most important business centers in Central Asia. Modern Tashkent is one of the most attractive cities in the region. Tashkent is unique for its architecture, hospitality and friendliness of the people of Tashkent. Tashkent is about 2200 years old. It has gone from a small ancient settlement to one of the largest cities of Asia. Many memorable events of war and peace took place in Tashkent.
Tashkent is a modern political, cultural, scientific and industrial center of Uzbekistan.

Not similar to other capitals of Central Asia, Tashkent has unique architecture. It does not include a buildings typical of Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva. Tashkent’s architecture is different due to his own school. Tashkent was more into business and commercial buildings dominated in the architecture.

Historical and architectural monuments of Tashkent
•    Kukeldash Madrasseh (14thc.)
•    The ancient settlement Shash-Tepa (16thc. BC-15thc. AD)
•    The ancient settlement Ming-Uryuk (1 st-13thc. AD)
•    The ancient settlement Unusabad Ak-Tepa (5th-8thcc.)
•    Mausoleum of Kaldirgach-bey (15thc.)
•    Sheikhantaur Mausoleum (14th-15thcc.,18th-19thcc.)
•    Mausoleum of Yunus-khan (the end of the 15thc.)
•    Mausoleum of Abubekr Muhammad Kafal Shashl (1541-1542)
•    Barak-khona Madrasse (the middle of the 16thc.)
•    Mosque of Tilla-shekh (the 19thc.)
•    Namazgoh Mosque (1845-1867)
•    Mausoleum of Zainutdin-bobo {the I2th, 14th, 16th, 19thcc.)
•    Said-Abu-Kasym Madrasse (the beginning of the 20thc.)
Tashkent province
•    The ancient settlement Kanka (3rd c. BC-l3thc. AD), environs of Akkurgan.
•    The ancient settlement Shakhrukhiya (the first centuries BC-18thc. AD), environs of Akkurgan.
•    Zangi-Ata architectural complex (the end of the 14thc. - the beginning of the 20thc.), Zangi-Ata village.
•    Mausoleum of Zangi-Ata (the end of the 14th-15thcc.)
•    Madrasse (the end of the I8thc. - the beginning of the 19thc.)
•    Mausoleum of Ambar-bibi (Ambar-ona) (the end of the 14thc. - the first half of the 15thc