Archeology of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is rich in archaeological findings which retained and brought us intriguing blend of Hellenistic, Buddhist and Scythian influences in the construction of concise desert castles in Khorezm and Bactria and the impact for the construction of the richest palaces in Sogdiana. You can admit the beauty of the wall paintings in the city of Varakhsha (Afrosiyab). Central Asia is the most ancient region populated by people, and one of the oldest cultural centers, as indicated by a number of archaeological findings. The territory of modern Uzbekistan was a place of intercrossing Asia with roads of the Great Silk Road. It connected Europe with China, passing through the oasis settlements of Khorezm, Kokand, Samarkand and Bukhara. In ancient times, the Central Asia had established trade and cultural relations with China, Iran, India and Arab countries around the Mediterranean, Eastern European countries, the Caucasus and even Siberia.
Important discoveries have been made in an ancient city of Samarkand. During archaeological excavations in “Koktepa”(located 35 kilometers from Samarkand), the remnants of noble young women (received the name in local mass media as "Sogdian princess") was found by archaeologists. Her clothing contained 333 stripes of gold plaques. Furthermore, among the excavations approximately 2000year aged goods including a Chinese mirror with a mysterious composition were dug out and presented to one of local museums.
We can state that trade relations with China in the region still existed at the dawn of the Great Silk Road. Valuable results gave also joint research of Uzbek and German scientists who carried out excavations in the Kyzyl Kum desert. Researchers found old mining spot. In the depth of 10-12 meters, they found the remains of metallurgical furnaces, metal splashes, the hills of slag. Scientists have found that copper was mined along the ancient Syr Darya, and tin in the foot and Zirabulak Mountains on the east of the ancient village of Carnaby.
Eight kilometers from the ancient capital, Uzbek and Australian archaeologists explored one of the ancient Zoroastrian temples of Khorezm - the Fire Temple. At the center of the Fire Temple, on the platform of mud brick, the dome covered dark room is located. Many centuries ago, the sacred fire was maintained from here ( The Fire Temple).
Above is an impressive complex of open space. Inside of each is the altar for sacrifice. During religious festivals the flame lit from the main altar of the sacred fire. The materials obtained in the excavations, provide "real" foothold for the recognition of Zoroastrianism as one of the oldest religions of the world.
In general there are many examples of archaeological discoveries in Uzbekistan. Each year, they are growing in number over the Uzbekistan, expanding our knowledge of the culture and traditions of our ancestors. And we in turn have the knowledge to appreciate and preserve.
Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital – Tashkent city. Republic of Uzbekistan is located in the middle of Central Asia, mainly between Amudarya and Sirdarya rivers. It borders with 5 neighbor republics: Kyrgyzstan in north-east, Kazakhstan in north-west, Tajikistan in south-east, Turkmenistan in south-west, and in south with Afghanistan.
Uzbekistan is located far from oceans and other natural reservoirs. That is why climate in Uzbekistan is hot, extremely dry, and in other words continental. Continental climate is expressed in strong contrasts between day and night, summer and winter temperatures.
Uzbekistan – the country of ancient culture and architecture. Architects of East had always astonished travelers and merchants passing through The Great Silk Road with magnificence and beauty of their works. Cities like Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva are called pearls of East for their beauty. There are more than 4000 historical monuments in Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan has rich history, tracing its roots for several thousand years. Only for the last half century, scientists found several places of Stone Age inhabitance. The most famous Stone Age inhabitance places are “Kulbulak” ,“Obi Rahmon”, “Teshiktash” and “Amankutan”.
Starting from 800 year B.C., Central Asia experienced emerge and cease of various ancient nations, cities and empires such as Bactria, Sogdiana and Khorezm, state of Akhmenids, Alexander the Great, the state of Selevkids (Greco-Bactrian), the empires of Parfians and Kushans.
In the 6th century B.C. Central Asia was conquered by king Kir, the founder of Persian nation. In 330 year B.C. Persians were crushed by Alexander the Great. Instead of Persians came the Greco-Bactrians, which kingdom included vast territory of the present Uzbekistan. The Kushans Empire subsisted in I-III centuries of Common Era.
At the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th, Arab conquerors captured Khorezm (Khiva) and Sogdiana (Samarkand, Bukhara). In 999 AC, Karakhanid’s dynasty, which accepted Islam took place of Samanids in Samarkand and Bukhara. In the beginning of the 13th century, Central Asia was conquered by Chengiz-Khan.
In 1370, outstanding military leader Temur becomes the ruler of Mavarounnahr. During Temur’s and his heirs’ (Shahruh, Ulugbek and Bobur) administration periods, great developments have taken place in field irrigation, art, handicraft, trade, literature and science in Samarkand and in all Mavarounnahr. Periods of economic prosperity took turns with periods of economic disaster because of endless wars and conquests, which were accompanied with extermination of whole cities and villages.
The enormous amount of historical monuments has been preserved since the days when Samarkand was the capital of Temur’s empire. Cities of modern Uzbekistan, including Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz and Tashkent are symbols of ancient oriental beauty.